A wide array of PCIe test tools are now available. With each successive generation, PCI Express test equipment has evolved to meet the increasingly stringent demands. Feature-rich tools from industry-leading PCIe test equipment suppliers are ideally portable and rugged, with readily-available training and certification. Given the backwards-compatible nature of the PCIe interface, interoperability for multiple sizes and versions and rapid upgradability are other overall characteristics of outstanding PCIe test equipment.
A jammer can manipulate live traffic to simulate errors in real time. The term “jamming” originated in the early 20th century to describe the deliberate interference introduced to disrupt enemy communication lines. For PCIe testing, a jammer is an inline error injection tool that can simulate real-world conditions and shorten test cycles. Often using pre-defined automated test scripts, a jammer can recreate a wide variety of error-testing scenarios.
Jammers such as the Xgig are highly intelligent and protocol aware, and can utilize conditional jamming to maintain control over the test process and ensure comprehensive test coverage. Working in conjunction with a protocol analyzer or other PCIe tester, the jammer produces discernable triggers at the error injection points. By introducing errors into real-world environments, the responsiveness and efficacy of the error recovery process can be accurately discerned.
The protocol analyzer is a versatile PCI Express tool for bus throughput and link performance measurement as well as packet monitoring and recording. Additional triggering, error reporting and filtering features can enable rapid error identification. Jamming capabilities can artificially create latencies and retransmissions to exercise error-detection capabilities.
Powerful analyzers with advanced trace analysis, traffic flow visibility and memory segmentation features are invaluable. The Xgig 4K16 Protocol Analyzer/Jammer allows simultaneous error injection and protocol analysis. Interoperability features include lane width support for x1, x2, x4, x8 and x16. Users are alerted to errors at every layer of the stack and advanced memory utilization empowers the simultaneous capture of multiple traces.
PCIe test software is the backbone upon which protocol analyzer and jammer technology has continued to meet the increasing speed, functionality and versatility requirements. Well-designed software can automate repetitive functions, create customized routines based on released specifications and integrate multiple tools for seamless functionality. Advanced reporting software can simplify complex data analysis and facilitate optimized interpretation.
The Xgig Expert software provided with all Xgig analyzers creates a user-friendly interface that aids in rapid data interpretation, debugging and troubleshooting. The software efficiently sorts through captured events to characterize performance and interoperability issues, identify physical layer issues including protocol violations and organize results into comprehensive reports on demand. Additional reporting software can enable efficient data filtering, analysis and presentation capabilities.