SCA Application Domains

Although originally created for tactical Software Defined Radios (SDR), the Software Communications Architecture (SCA) is a Component Based Development (CBD) architecture that targets all embedded systems developments regardless of the application domain. The SCA provides developers with a high level abstraction between the software and hardware platforms, greatly simplifies development cycles, promotes software reuse and facilitates system updates and upgrades. The SCA also minimizes development risk, and improves overall quality of complex heterogeneous embedded systems.

Providing operating system and programming language independence, hardware abstraction, location transparency, as well as being able to deploy software components across a variety of hardware processors (GPP, DSP, GPU, FPGA) the SCA is now being used in the telecommunications, aerospace, radar, electronic warfare, robotics, and instrumentation domains.

  • Software Defined Radio

    The Wireless Innovation Forum (WInnF), an international non-profit corporation dedicated to advocating the advancement of radio technologies that support essential or critical communications worldwide, identifies a Software Defined Radio (SDR) as a “Radio in which some or all of the physical layer functions are Software Defined”.

    Software Defined Radio

    SDR technology addresses the exponential growth in the ways and means by which people need to communicate. Data, voice, video, messaging, command and control, emergency response communications, etc. are all encompassing communication mechanisms currently within the SDR domain.

    SDR is a solution to competing demands about providing greater access to communication means while keeping a tap on the equipment costs. SDR is a flexible and cost efficient solution where benefits can be realized by service providers, product developers and even reaching end users.

  • Test & Measuring Instruments

    As Software-defined radios (SDRs) are being more widely deployed, test and measurement instruments are ramping up to be able to test SDRs in a way that was not possible before. The market is moving so fast, manufacturers need to be able to react quickly.

    Test & Measuring Instruments

    In many cases, the products and protocols under test are evolving or still being defined until very late in the product development life-cycle. Supporting all the changes in hardware is very expensive and far too slow. In fact, traditional tester are often obsolete by the time they are brought to market. Software-defined testers (also known as virtual instruments) provide the level of flexibility required to adjust as the standards and protocols evolve. Furthermore, next generation software-defined instruments allow engineers to peak inside the radios to monitor and alter internal signals of the waveform. Not being constrained to the antenna port (i.e black box testing) provides an unprecedented way of testing and qualifying radios.

    The Software Communications Architecture (SCA) follows a Component Based Development (CBD) paradigm that provides a framework for software components reuse that is highly suited for the EW domain.

  • Radar

    Radar systems must perform massive signal analysis to convert information, collected by the antennas, into some form accessible by the user, be it an air traffic controller, weather monitoring or an embedded computer autonomously controlling a larger system (cars, robots, drones). Current state-of-the art radars perform this analysis by exploiting the capabilities of modern digital processors. The microwave signal is digitized and fed to one, many, or a combination of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), digital signal processors (DSPs), graphic processor units (GPUs), or general purpose processors (GPPs) where it will be filtered, down-converted, weighted, delayed, combined, and passed through many  other algorithms to obtain the desired information with the required accuracy. Those digitally processing radars are dubbed Software Defined Radars, by analogy to the Software Defined Radios that are now being commonly used in the military and commercial sectors.

    Radar

    Radar

    Radar

    The mere fact that the signal processing is now performed in the digital domain provides a huge advantage over the older and more traditional all RF implementations. The processing algorithms can be modified faster and easier in software than in an all hardware implementation. Depending on the application scenario, transmit and receive signal processing functions can be adapted on demand to suit requirements. New functionalities can be added without the need to upgrade or replace hardware components. Maintenance cost can decrease as the system can be upgraded or fixed in-situ.

    But this flexibility comes at a cost, trading hardware inflexibility by added software complexity. Code generation and debugging is increasingly complex due not only to the number of algorithms that must now be programmed but also due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the hardware processing platforms required for radar applications. Nowadays is not uncommon to find applications that make combined use of GPPs, DSPs and FPGAs (some even using GPUs) where the application software is partitioned, deployed and configured across such distributed heterogeneous processors.

    Software integration thus becomes in some cases a major source of cost overrun. Not to count that often most of the software-related work will need to be redone from the beginning with every new generation of the product, as the hardware platform changes.

    With the growth of the software size and complexity, traditional approach to software development is increasingly inefficient, leading to lower productivity and consequently higher cost.

    An approach to improve on this has been developed and adopted by military organizations for their communications systems. Under the joint efforts of US DoD’s Joint Tactical Networking Center (JTNC)(erstwhile JTRS) and the Wireless Innovation Forum (WInnF) (SDR Forum v2.0), a system design architecture framework has been developed promoting software portability and reuse, facilitating hardware upgrades and overall system scalability in an attempt to reduce development time and cost of new products. The software architecture, called Software Communications Architecture (SCA), has been adopted by the major Armed Forces around the world, and is now used by the major military radios manufacturers. The SCA promotes software portability and reuse to address software size and complexity growth in the Radar domain.

  • Electronic Warfare

    Electronic Warfare (EW) capabilities are becoming invaluable necessities in combat situations. Advanced warning, searching, intercepting, locating, recording, detection and target acquisition are indispensable tasks in EW.

    Combat scenarios are changing due to new threats being developed while defences are being tested with the aid of the electromagnetic spectrum. In EW the need to gather, validate and process data from many different sources is a must. Identifying what electronic emitters are up to  – whether friendly, hostile or unidentified – is crucial for effective electronic warfare operations. Decisions need to be quickly made with such acquired intelligence. Mission success now requires a comprehensive knowledge of the electronic battlespace.

    Electronic Warfare

    In sensing for potential threats, microwave signals are digitized and fed to one, many, or a combination of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), digital signal processors (DSPs), graphic processor units (GPUs), or general purpose processors (GPPs). The signals are then filtered, down-converted, weighted, delayed, combined, and passed through many other algorithms to obtain the desired information with the required accuracy.

    The main challenges in EW include signal detection, emitter parameter measurement and correlation, emitter sorting, identification, and operator notification, which are often classified as Electronic Support Measures (ESM) or Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) systems. ESM systems are often tasked to preserve electronic data for future analysis. Traditionally, ESM systems focus on emitters locations with the support of RWRs that estimate position/distance.

    A non-comprehensive lists of a typical emitter characteristics, that ESM system functions can measure for, include: radio frequency, amplitude, direction of arrival, time of arrival, pulse repetition interval, pulse width , scan type and rate and lobe duration (beam width). Other advanced ESM systems can also measure pulse repetition interval modulation characteristics, inter-and intra-pulse frequency modulation (FM), missile guidance characteristics, and continuous wave signals.

    By relying in a collection of algorithm implementations mostly done in software, EW is part of a larger trend of Software Defined domains that are looking into component based architectures with enhanced portability and reuse of algorithm implementations. For large organizations that work on EW, Software Defined Radios, Software Defined Radars, etc., the benefits are multiplied as algorithm implementations can be shared as software components across those multiple domains.

    The Software Communications Architecture (SCA) follows a Component Based Development (CBD) paradigm that provides a framework for software components reuse that is highly suited for the EW domain.

  • Robotics & Automation

    Historically and traditionally the communications facilities and autonomous capabilities of a unmanned system have been completely independent. Communications and autonomy were stove piped sub-systems whose only interface was a port through which binary data was sent to the radio for transmission, and received from the radio for processing.

    Advances in technologies have significantly changed the way radios are built, to the point where it is no longer just hardware that modulates and demodulates waveforms. On the leading edge of radio technology is the Software Defined Radio (SDR) paradigm, which implements a majority of the radio functionality as software, including the modulation and demodulation of waveforms. With its software underpinning, the SDR is an extremely flexible device whose performance characteristics can be easily modified via a software update. With such a large degree of flexibility, as is offered by a software approach, the question then becomes how to implement a SDR and how to ensure radio compatibility.

    Robotics & Automation

    These questions of implementation and standards are addressed by the Software Communications Architecture (SCA), which is the defining standard for the U.S. Army’s Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS) and is being adopted throughout the world for national SDR programs for countries in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and South America. The SCA responds to the challenges of implementing sophisticated radio control and algorithms by adopting the Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) paradigm that provides a formalized approach to address the complexity problem.

    Given that the robotics community has also adopted the same CBSE approach to deal with software complexity, a strong convergence exists between the communications and autonomy capabilities of an unmanned system. More specifically, it is now not only possible, but also desirable, to integrate autonomous capabilities with radio communications functionality. This integration onto a single hardware system offers a number of potential advantages:

    • Reduced implementation complexity
    • Weight savings
    • Lower overall power consumption
    • Increased flexibility, portability, reusability and expandability
    • Opportunities to optimize radio communications

    Both the required hardware and software architecture/framework now exist that allows for the close integration of radio communications and autonomy capabilities into a single processor. The software development process can be expedited through the use of commercially available graphical modeling integrated development environments (IDEs) that greatly simplify the development of software components that implement core radio and autonomy capabilities. Those software components are then taken into the autonomous system and executed via the SCA Core Framework, which is a standardized deployment engine of software components for heterogeneous embedded distributed systems (HEDS).

    Robotics & Automation

    It is no longer necessary to consider unmanned system radio communications and autonomy capabilities as separate stove piped systems. Technology is now available that allows for the close integration of the formerly independent sub-systems. With this close integration the autonomy software can influence the radio configuration and vice versa. The advantages to such an approach are numerous and will assist the designer/engineer in producing ever more capable unmanned systems that are more flexible and expandable than currently fielded products.

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